英国福彩3d图库学

 I have written a number of accounts of British 福彩3d图库学 for various collections, trying to put British 福彩3d图库学 in a global context. 我的书中更全面地介绍了这个故事 英国福彩3d图库理论。在1950年之前恢复失去的传统 (Sage,2018)和 英国福彩3d图库学 (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2020), though much remains to be said about the theoretical and empirical work of British 福彩3d图库学家. The preparatory and more detailed papers can be found in my publication list, using the filter tags for ‘History of 福彩3d图库学 in Britain’ and ‘Social theorists’.

A collection of papers produced with others is 英国帕格格雷夫福彩3d图库学手册. This contains papers on the past and present of British 福彩3d图库学.  有关的更多详细信息 手册和some reflections on the future of British 福彩3d图库学 can be found here.

My research has involved studies into the history of various departments of 福彩3d图库学, 福彩3d图库科学, and social policy, from which I have compiled a database of mini-histories. 该数据库可以在这里找到。

As an introduction to this area, I have set out below a summary overview of 福彩3d图库学 in Britain from the earliest days to the present, documenting some of its principal concerns and themes.

英国福彩3d图库学概述


这个单词‘sociologie’是1830年由奥古斯特·孔德(Auguste Comte)发明的,这种新词在英国被接受为‘sociology’由赫伯特·斯宾塞(Herbert Spencer)撰写,他从1850年代中期开始构建自己的知识体系。语言纯粹主义者认为拉丁语和希腊语是野蛮的结合,直到二十世纪,斯宾塞给福彩3d图库进化论思想的名字一直被许多人拒绝。

然而,为了促进该学科的成立,于1903年成立了一个福彩3d图库学学会,并形成了一种杂志(《福彩3d图库学评论》,最初是《福彩3d图库学论文》)作为一种专业出版物。第一个大学教授职位‘sociology’ was established at the London School of Economics four years later. The association and journal failed to build on their initial success and had lost much of their momentum by the time of the First World War. The Department of Sociology at the LSE grew only slowly and it was not until after the Second World War that there was any significant growth in university teaching and research in 福彩3d图库学. A new journal, The British Journal of Sociology was formed under the firm control of the LSE and new departments were sponsored in provincial universities under the leadership of the LSE and its staff, who acted as ‘external examiners’ for these universities. It was in the 1960s, when a major expansion of university teaching was encouraged and financed by the government, that many more new departments of 福彩3d图库学 were founded in the new universities and in colleges that were later to expand and to acquire university status. Sociology was finally established as a university discipline, though it has continued to be the target for financial cuts and political hostility ever since.

However, 福彩3d图库学 as a subject is more than just a name. It is a way of thinking about social life and a way of reporting on different forms of social life, and this way of thinking and reporting has a much longer history in Britain than does its university organisation under the label ‘sociology’。与许多国家一样,福彩3d图库思想和福彩3d图库调查是在大学以外发展的,并且往往是由那些具有悠久历史的学科和实践的人发展的。福彩3d图库学作为一种思维方式—今天将被称为‘social theory’—在自我识别的哲学家,历史学家和文学评论家的工作中发展起来的,这些人提出了关键思想,这些思想最终成为古典经济理论和福彩3d图库学思想的形式。福彩3d图库学作为一种对福彩3d图库生活进行实证研究的方法,随着‘statistical’宗教和福彩3d图库改革者对生活条件的研究,被认为是‘social science’ of poverty. Any study of 福彩3d图库学 in Britain must recognise the importance of this ‘pre-history’大学学科。

Early 福彩3d图库理论 in Britain

对人类福彩3d图库的普遍反思起源于中世纪后期和近代早期的宗教和哲学著作,但具体而言,现代反思可追溯到18世纪的启蒙运动。[1]正是遵循约翰·洛克和戴维·休ume的哲学家的工作为福彩3d图库理论的主流方法奠定了基础。这种思想观点是经验主义者和个人主义者,在很大程度上是苏格兰哲学家的产物,他们与法国理论家孟德斯鸠和卢梭有着特别密切的联系。最重要的是亚当·斯密(Adam Smith),亚当·弗格森(Adam Ferguson)和约翰·米勒(John Millar),他们认为个体是由与他人的互动所形成的文化背景,但始终在一定的物理和生物学条件下行动,从而限制了他们的行动,并且也因这些行动而改变。[2]个人通过他们的行动产生了福彩3d图库关系的复杂结构,例如市场,分工和政治宪法,但他们将这些产生为其行为的意想不到的结果,并且常常不了解影响其行为的结构。亚当·史密斯(Adam Smith)总结了这一点‘hidden hand’导致特定福彩3d图库分布和不平等模式的市场。

The Scottish theorists developed this as a theory of class and class 冲突 that could explain the development of human societies through a series of stages, each marked by a particular mode of production and subsistence. They saw 福彩3d图库发展 in western Europe as a movement from ‘savage’狩猎和捕鱼协会‘barbaric’放牧和放牧,到农业阶段,最后到商业活动的商业活动和制造业。随着对商业,资本主义福彩3d图库中市场交易的分析,他们的解释得到了进一步发展,这成为戴维·里卡多,詹姆斯·米尔和杰里米·边沁的经典经济学和功利主义。

功利主义的更广泛含义得到哈里特·马丁诺(Harriet Martineau)的认可,他对美国福彩3d图库进行了重大研究,对托克维尔构成了补充 ’对美国政治和福彩3d图库的研究。[3]马蒂诺表明,美国的主导价值体系强调平等,民主和正义,但与富裕的贵族福彩3d图库结构并存,既维持了种族奴隶制​​又服从于妇女。 Harriet Taylor Mill,Millicent Garrett Fawcett和Josephine Butler引起了关于女性不平等问题的大量讨论。马丁诺(Martineau)自己编写了关于福彩3d图库学方法的虚拟教科书,并接受了孔德(Comte)的广泛阅读’s Cours.[4]

Henry Buckle进一步探索了物理环境对人类行为的影响,他试图建立反映文化与环境相互作用的人类行为定律。[5]他认为,这样的法律可以使我们通过苏格兰作家所确定的各个阶段来解释人类福彩3d图库的发展,并可以说明为什么西方的发展不同于亚洲和非洲的东方福彩3d图库。他认为,在欧洲,技术的发展增强了对环境的控制能力,因此相应地也增强了文化品格和精神塑造福彩3d图库生活的能力。他特别指出了理性和科学思想的发展。

John Stuart Mill的工作是这一主流理论研究的顶峰。最初是像孔蒂(Marteaueau)一样受到孔戴(Comte)的启发’在早期的工作中,[6] Mill开发了一种独立的方法,避开了这两个标签‘sociology’ and the word ‘positivist’. Mill’认为个人信念和情感是通过福彩3d图库化发展而来的,这些福彩3d图库化是定义行为习惯和行为倾向的性格特征。[7]个人的行为交织在一起,并通过其意想不到的后果,产生了可以根据其不同的平衡状态进行分析的福彩3d图库结构。可以制定结构变化定律,但是它们比经济学的复杂得多,在经济学中,可以使用货币价值进行数学计算。

Comtean实证主义直接由George Lewes接管,他将Mill合并’的与孔德的论点’在他的系统中的后来思考è我。这些想法被理查德·康格雷夫(Richard Congreve)推广—由孔德任命为英国实证主义教会的负责人—以及弗雷德里克·哈里森(Frederick Harrison)的著作,他是许多孔德(Comme)’的出版物。哈里森将这些用于研究英国福彩3d图库的秩序与变化。[8]

This mainstream view was far from the only strand of 福彩3d图库理论 in Britain. Alongside it, and intertwining with it, were three other 线 of thought. Their interconnections were such that they must be regarded as ‘lines’的思想,并没有区别‘schools’思想。这三种处理福彩3d图库世界的方法具有进化论,理想论和福彩3d图库主义的特征。

进化思想起源于英国的帝国扩张,它揭示了人类差异和文化多样性的重要性以及解释各种福彩3d图库中不同的发展速度和模式的必要性。十九世纪初对‘race’ led to ethnographic accounts of the linguistic and cultural evolution of different ethnic groups. While some of this writing emphasised a biological basis for 种族, others saw evolution as due to cultural and environmental factors. This latter orientation was furthered by the evolutionary ideas of Charles Darwin, which stressed the importance of environmental adaptation. This made it possible to explore the environmental selection of cultural traits and to use this as an explanation of social differences.

The most important elaborations of this view were those undertaken by John Lubbock and Edward Tylor, now seen as founding figures in, respectively, archaeology and anthropology.[9] Lubbock applied evolutionary ideas to human prehistory and the movement from 野蛮的ry to barbarism and civilisation. Tylor undertook comparative studies of contemporary societies to explore the transition from tribal to civilised ways of life. Around the works of Lubbock and Tylor arose a series of other investigations into the evolution of kinship, religion, and mythology.[10]

最重要的进化思想家是那些明确采用该标签的人‘sociology’在他们的工作中。赫伯特·斯宾塞(Herbert Spencer)构造了一系列的‘Principles’, the 原则 of Sociology appearing between 1873 and 1893.[11] He constructed a concept of the ‘social organism’ as comprising a population of interacting and communicating individuals located in a particular physical environment and developing particular cultural traits. Culture itself was seen as a social consciousness that has real effects yet exists only as dispersed in individual consciousness. Individuals produce a culture in which environmentally-adapted traits are transmitted from generation to generation through socialisation. Through their actions, as the mainstream 传统 had shown, individuals build the structures of the 福彩3d图库有机体 that acquire a reality of their own. The development of these structural forms can be explained, Spencer argued, by the selective effects of the environment on the cultural traits that become the basis of individual habits of action.

斯宾塞(Spencer)的福彩3d图库进化是一个日益复杂的过程,他将已确立的一系列阶段重构为一个涉及一系列连续过程的进化发展规模。‘compounding’或结构上的细化。差异化过程产生新的‘sustaining’, ‘regulating’, and ‘distributing’出现以整合和协调福彩3d图库不同部分的结构。

Following this insight, Benjamin Kidd constructed an alternative evolutionary theory that traced the gradual development of progressively stronger forms of altruism and solidarity.[12] Both Spencer and Kidd were highly influential outside Britain, though they had less direct influence on the growth of 福彩3d图库学 on Britain itself.

理想主义者的理论路线植根于对自由,工业现代性的浪漫主义批判,主流和进化论理论家将其视为福彩3d图库进步的最高点。保守派政治家埃德蒙·伯克(Edmund Burke)’对法国大革命的批评回溯到他声称是古代人类福彩3d图库特征的凝聚力和社区意识égime and that still survived in Britain. Burke saw British advocates of radicalism and reform as threatening to unleash similar revolutionary tendencies in Britain itself. It was essential, he argued, to recognise that any stable and secure society must rest upon the 道德纽带 of community and not upon individual economic calculation or political coercion. Like his French counterparts de Bonald and de Maistre, Burke emphasised the importance of ‘tradition’和建立‘institutions’一个国家,它定义了自己的独特特征,对于维护福彩3d图库秩序至关重要。

This point of view was taken forward largely within a literary 传统, initially by the Romantic poets William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Robert Southey.[13] They shared Burke’s opposition to liberal individualism and extended his argument to the disruptive effects of capitalist industrialism. The development of industry and urbanism, they argued, were destroying 传统al communal life and were creating socially disorganised and 冲突-ridden cities in which isolated individuals were increasingly alienated from the social order. This view was developed largely in poetry and ballads that described the failures and losses of 传统al country communities and the beautiful countryside in which well-integrated humans had lived. William Blake deplored the effects of the ‘dark-satanic mills’ on ‘England’绿色宜人的土地’.

玛丽·沃斯通克拉夫特(Mary Wollstonecraft)倡导法国大革命的原则以及男女权利,但她也认为,现代性有失去社区意识的危险,而这可能仅是由于这些人的交流和对话所致。不受商业计算约束的人,​​他们可以发展出同情和团结感,这将成为他们自身身份和安全感的基础。[14]沃斯通克拉夫特’她的女儿玛丽·雪莱(Mary Shelley)在她的小说《科学怪人》(Frankenstein)中扩展了这一论点,在那里她研究了不受束缚地追求个人野心和科学合理性所固有的危险。

宗教作家和教育学家对浪漫主义的社区,交流和凝聚力进行了展望,他们强调了文学文化在培养精英人才中的重要性。‘soul’使他们有能力带领福彩3d图库摆脱纯粹的商业主义和工业主义。然而,这种观点最强烈的表达是文学评论家托马斯·卡莱尔(Thomas Carlyle)的表达,他对‘mechanical society’ and ‘Mammonism’. He saw works of art and literature as no longer being creative products but simply the 机械 results of routine intellectual labour that produced repetitive and stereotyped products. The individuals of a society, he argued, must be clothed in social 机构 and customs that express an organic national spirit and that must underpin all constitutional and economic arrangements.[15]

正是在19世纪后期,这种观点才开始形成连贯的观点。‘social philosophy’根植于康德和黑格尔的理想主义。与牛津大学有关的一组唯心主义哲学家重建了他们对斯宾塞的认识’福彩3d图库有机体的概念,认为必须将其视为由‘internal relations’ that comprise its ‘moral bonds’。这些作家中最重要的伯纳德·博桑奎特(Bernard Bosanquet)成为首位认真对待涂尔干思想的英国理论家,他认为涂尔干是利用德国唯心主义来认识有机团结和良心集体的重要性。[16]在此基础上,他建立了现实福彩3d图库建构的概念:福彩3d图库就是‘mind-made’,是根据人们在福彩3d图库化为文化的基础上在脑海中构建的含义而构建的。福彩3d图库的制度和实践是在相互作用的个人的思想中构成的心理系统的外部投射。这种观点在伦理学和福彩3d图库哲学学院得到了组织上的推动,后来在伦敦大学内更名为福彩3d图库学和福彩3d图库经济学学院,尽管它的关注点是基于公民意识的概念来培训福彩3d图库工作者,而不是一门叫做福彩3d图库学的学科的智力发展。

The final line of 福彩3d图库理论 in the 史前 of British 福彩3d图库学 was linked to the development of socialist thought. British socialism was, of course, closely linked to the Romantic critique of industrial capitalism, its early forms comprising the views of Christian Socialists and the aesthetic socialism of John Ruskin. Robert Owen’查尔斯·傅里叶(Charles Fourier)追随者的合作思想和空想福彩3d图库主义也塑造了这些新出现的担忧。英国福彩3d图库主义发展为一种形式‘ethical socialism’尽管马克思和恩格斯大部分时间都在英国度过,但这反映出缺乏正统的马克思主义运动。

British 伦理福彩3d图库主义 combined ideas from Ruskin and Marx and there were important statements in the work of William Morris and his colleagues in the Socialist League. Morris reconstructed a stage model of 福彩3d图库发展, each stage characterised by a particular pattern of integration but undermined by changing class relations.[17] The class relations of capitalism had produced a ‘mechanical’在福彩3d图库中,工作的异化和非人性化与自然和人类社区的破坏有关。

埃莉诺·马克思和爱德华·卡彭特将这种观点扩展到对性别与性别关系的分析中。埃莉诺·马克思在对美国工人阶级的研究中探索了资本主义和父权制的结合,而爱德华·卡彭特(Edward Carpenter)提出了对性的非人性化的描述。[18]

The most characteristic development of socialist 福彩3d图库理论 in Britain was that of a group of writers associated with the Fabian Society, an early forerunner of the Labour Party. Sidney and Beatrice Webb, George Bernard Shaw, and, for a while, H. G. Wells, developed a non-Marxist alternative to utilitarian economics and advocated the development of a new science of ‘sociology’ that would explore the implications of economic concentration, monopoly, and class divisions within the 福彩3d图库有机体. The Webbs were a major force in the establishment of the LSE, though 福彩3d图库学 was not to figure as one of its departments for some years.

Associated with the Fabians, though pursuing an independent line, was John Hobson, who developed this radical idea of the 福彩3d图库有机体. Going beyond idealism, Hobson held that the 福彩3d图库有机体 had to be seen as a combination of cultural with economic forces, the economic aspect comprising its material base. This point of view was sketched rather than elaborated, though Hobson devised influential analyses of class relations in modern capitalism and the structure of imperialism.[19]

Early 统计 studies of society

在中世纪时期对英国福彩3d图库进行了各种人口普查和调查,但是到了18世纪,随着国民经济和福彩3d图库改革的需求变得越来越紧迫,这些调查和调查采取了更加严格和系统的形式。史密斯(Smith)和弗格森(Ferguson)在为国家富裕和农业和商业的发展提出了理论之后不久,苏格兰国会议员约翰·辛克莱(Sir Sirsir)爵士向苏格兰的每个教区发送了问卷,要求教区部长汇报生活状况人口,价格和农业成本的趋势,并就其教区的状况提供书面报告。结果被编入《苏格兰统计帐户》的21卷系列。辛克莱过了几年’在1797年的调查中,弗雷德里克·伊登爵士(Frederick Eden)对英国教区进行了类似但简短的调查,该调查以《穷人国》出版。

This focus on 统计 measures of poverty provided the basis for subsequent empirical research on British society. Malthus’s Essay on Population stimulated public concern over agricultural productivity and poverty and in 1801 the government launched the first national census of population. A growing interest in 统计 measurement led the British Association for the Advancement of Science to establish a 统计 section in 1833. As a result, a number of provincial 统计 societies were formed, most notably in Manchester and London. These societies comprised clergymen, medical doctors, and others committed to social reform on the basis of their studies into an increasingly urbanised population. The 统计 societies organised a number of house-to-house surveys and were influential in establishing a more regular national census in 1841: a census has been held every 10 years since then. This marked the beginning of a massive growth in the collection of statistics by national government agencies.

The 统计 surveys were complemented by a number of ethnographic studies of the urban poor. This began with Engels’s study of Salford—于1845年进行,但仅在1887年以英文出版—继续通过亨利·梅休’s studies of London’的东端,并最终在查尔斯·布斯(Charles Booth)’s survey of London poverty.[20] Booth, a Liverpool shipowner who personally financed a combination of ethnographic observation, interviewing, and 统计 measurement, interpreted his results loosely in relation to Frédéric Le Play’对农村和工业生活的调查。他毫不含糊地表明,伦敦有三分之一的人口生活在低薪,临时就业和失业造成的贫困状况中。

Classical 福彩3d图库学 in Britain

These 线 of theory and movements in empirical research were distinct from each other, developing in parallel but without any integration. When attempts were made to establish 福彩3d图库学 as a university discipline at the start of the twentieth century, the classical 福彩3d图库学家 drew on the theoretical approaches in varying ways but all-but ignored empirical research. When university 福彩3d图库学 was established it was as a largely theoretical enterprise.

Two projects for the establishment of 福彩3d图库学 vied for position around the turn of the century, this rivalry leading to the ultimate success of Leonard Hobhouse, the new professor in 福彩3d图库学 at the LSE. The unsuccessful project was that associated with the work of Patrick Geddes. Besides these two projects was a third, partial project that never properly took off. This was set out in the work of Robert MacIver, a political theorist at the University of Aberdeen who persuaded his university to attach the label ‘sociology’ to his lectureship in 1911. MacIver constructed a powerful synthesis of ideas from Durkheim and Simmel, using these to reconstruct the idealist line of theory in ways that would recognise the importance of the physical environment.[21] However, MacIver left the UK for Canada in 1914 and made his subsequent career in the United States, where he became an influential contributor to American 福彩3d图库学 and was widely thought to be Canadian or American.

Patrick Geddes was a Scottish biologist who was much influenced by the 福彩3d图库学 of Le Play, which he regarded as ecological in character. Moving more firmly into sociological work, he was associated with the London Positivist Society and was attracted to many Comtean ideas. He combined these, however, with the 伦理福彩3d图库主义 of Ruskin and Morris and produced an ecological model of the relationship between culture, the material way of life, and the environment.[22] His student and collaborator Victor Branford worked to popularise Geddes’s ideas and sought to establish his approach as the dominant form of 福彩3d图库学 in Britain. It was Branford who formed the Sociological Society in 1903 and edited its professional journal.[23]

Leonard Hobhouse was an Oxford philosopher, member of the Fabian Society, and journalist for the Manchester Guardian newspaper. An influential exponent of New Liberalism, he was closely associated with John Hobson and the Independent Labour Party. He drew on the socialist 传统 to reconstruct the idealist theory of the 福彩3d图库有机体, setting out an alternative theory to that of Herbert Spencer and referring to it as a theory of ‘social development’,而不是进化论。霍布豪斯’福彩3d图库结构的概念在很大程度上归功于米尔的工作,但也借鉴了麦克维尔的见解。[24]

When the LSE decided to establish a full-time professorship in 福彩3d图库学 it was Hobhouse rather than Geddes who was appointed. The Hobhouse group and the Geddes group engaged in a protracted 冲突 through the inter-war years and it was the approach of Geddes that was increasingly marginalised.[25] In this period, however, 福彩3d图库学 remained largely a concern of the LSE. Its 福彩3d图库学家 pursued Hobhouse’s theoretical concerns, engaging in empirical studies of social class and mobility and beginning to work with the heirs of the 统计 传统 who also found a base in the LSE. Sociology elsewhere was undertaken as ‘Social Science’ or ‘福彩3d图库行政’, most notably at the universities of Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Glasgow, and Leeds, and at Bedford College in London. Social anthropology developed largely in separation from 福彩3d图库学, despite the fact that some such as Alfred Radcliffe-Brown were happy to call themselves ‘sociologists’.

British 福彩3d图库学 after the Second World War

The generation of 福彩3d图库学家 trained at the LSE immediately after the Second World War turned against the ideas of Hobhouse to which they had been exposed and were increasingly attracted to the new ideas of Talcott Parsons that were becoming well-known in Britain.[26] They took on many structural-functionalist ideas, though they tended to give much greater attention to 冲突 and material factors. This was the orientation that they took with them to open and head new departments of 福彩3d图库学 in Leicester, Manchester, Leeds, Edinburgh, and elsewhere. Sociology was beginning to find a presence across the country, though not yet in Oxford or Cambridge where hostility to the subject remained strong. Professionalisation of the subject was renewed with the founding of the British Journal of Sociology, the relaunching of the Sociological Review from Keele University, and the formation in 1951 of a new professional association, the British Sociological Association. The BSA launched its own journal, Sociology, in 1967.

以大学为基础的福彩3d图库学发展成为一门主要是经验学科,它运用结构功能和冲突思想来组织这项工作。有影响力的理论著作包括David Lockwood’关于帕森理论[27]和长期居住在英国的拉尔夫·达伦多夫的阶级理论的批判评论。 1961年,来自南非的移民约翰·雷克斯(John Rex)提出了韦伯冲突理论。[28]然而,在大多数情况下,福彩3d图库学工作是经验性的,尽管背离了早期统计研究的高度经验主义特征。[29]经验福彩3d图库学的主要关注点是福彩3d图库阶级和福彩3d图库流动性,以及投票行为,教育,工会组织,组织结构和城市变革等相关领域。这些担忧反映了许多福彩3d图库学家与工党之间的紧密联系,并试图使其组织现代化并呼吁其满足不断变化的阶级关系和选举期望。中央研究探索了战后政策变化对教育,健康和福利的影响,以及这些变化对政党支持和政治参与的影响。进行了大量研究的其他领域包括宗教福彩3d图库学和犯罪与控制福彩3d图库学,以及一系列长期的社区研究。在所有这些领域中,阶级是关键变量,福彩3d图库学家经常因其行为而受到批评。‘obsession’ with class.

In the mid-1960s, 福彩3d图库学 provision began to expand in the newly founded campus universities of Essex, Sussex, Lancaster, Warwick, and elsewhere. The growing demand for higher education also saw the expansion of Colleges of Technology (later converted to Polytechnics) in which 福彩3d图库学 was a major subject of study. This expanded provision brought in new lecturers from other disciplines who were less committed to the established approaches to the subject. Greater attention was given to Marxist ideas that had become important in France and Germany and to American interactionist theories. A particular focus for this work was the studies on the mass media undertaken by Stuart Hall and his colleagues, which was responsible for a growth of interest in cultural studies. At a more general theoretical level, Anthony Giddens moved from his early work in the ‘conflict’与法国和德国理论交往的方法,导致他自己 ‘structuration theory’.[30]

Many of the established empirical specialisms were transformed in the period following the 1960s expansion. Sociologies of politics, industry, education, and religion largely disappeared with the movement of staff into new departments of political science, Business Schools, Schools of Education, and Departments of Religious Studies. In their place, there were new and more theoretically informed specialisms in social movements, economic 福彩3d图库学, socialisation, and culture. The 福彩3d图库学 of crime was transformed by a growing interest in the 福彩3d图库学 of deviance and then, once more, moved back to a concern with crime that stimulated the growth of new departments of criminology and to an expansion in Schools of Law. An interest in 种族 and ethnicity had developed with the growth of immigration into Britain in the 1950s and 1960s, and a concern for ethnic identity and ethnic divisions spread from the specialism to other areas of specialisation.

From the 1970s a growing interest in feminist theory and a concern for issues of sex and gender led to a rejuvenation of many areas of teaching and research and to the emergence of new specialisms in sexuality, the 福彩3d图库学 of the body, and the 福彩3d图库学 of health and medicine. The growing interest in health was also encouraged by the expansion of Medical Schools and the consequent demand for sociological research into health and medicine. The internationalisation of British society brought a growing interest in postmodernism, post-structuralism, and post-colonial theories and a consequent growth of interest in issues of globalisation, the 福彩3d图库学 of the environment, and migration studies. In all these ways, the expansion of 福彩3d图库学 also involved a growth of 福彩3d图库学 outside departments of 福彩3d图库学.

The long 史前 and the rather shorter history of 福彩3d图库学 in Britain has produced a lively and thriving discipline that is globally engaged with 福彩3d图库学 in other countries. I hope that this brief survey has indicated some of the principal trends in British sociological work.

 

笔记 

这篇文章最初以法语“ Sociologie en Grande-Bretagne”出现, 福彩3d图库学实践,39,2019。

[1]          参见Scott,J.中的讨论。 英国福彩3d图库理论。在1950年之前恢复丢失的传统。 伦敦,圣人出版社,2018年。

 
[2]          Smith, A. 道德情感理论。牛津,牛津大学出版社,1976年(原为1759年);弗格森,A。 公民福彩3d图库史论文。爱丁堡,爱丁堡大学出版社,1966年(最初为1767年); Millar,J.等级区分的由来。伦敦,J。Murray(原为1779年)。

 
[3]          Martineau, H. 美国福彩3d图库。 1962年,纽约,双日(S. M. Lipset编辑的删节版。本来是1837年)。

 
[4]          Martineau, H. 如何遵守礼节和道德。 伦敦,查尔斯·奈特,1838年;马蒂诺(H. 孔德的积极哲学, 三册。伦敦,乔治·贝尔,1896年(最初是1853年)。

 
[5]          Buckle, H. T. 历史简介  文明 in 英国。伦敦,乔治·鲁特里奇(George Routledge),1904年(最初是1857-61年)。

 
[6]          Mill, J. S. 奥古斯特·孔戴与实证主义。布里斯托尔(Thoemmes Press),1993年(最初是1865年)。

 
[7]         Mill, J. S. 道德科学的逻辑。伦敦,达克沃思(Duckworth),1987年(最初于1872年单独出版)。

 
[8]         Harrison, F. 秩序与进步。布莱顿,收割者出版社,1975年(原为1877年)。

 
[9]          Lubbock, J. 文明的起源与人类的原始状态。芝加哥,芝加哥大学出版社,1978年(最初为1870年);泰勒(E. B.) 原始文化。神话,哲学,宗教,语言,艺术和风俗发展的研究。两卷。伦敦,约翰·默里(John Murray),1920年(原为1871年)。

 
[10]         参见,例如,Robertson Smith,W。 关于闪族宗教的讲座。基础机构。爱丁堡,亚当和查尔斯·布莱克,1889年;麦克伦南,J。F. 原始婚姻。爱丁堡,亚当和查尔斯·布莱克(1865年)。

 
[11]          Spencer, H. 福彩3d图库学研究。伦敦,凯根·保罗,海沟和  Co., 1873-93

 
[12]         Kidd, B. 福彩3d图库进化。伦敦,麦克米伦(Macmillan),1894年。

 
[13]        特别参见Coleridge,ST。 论教会和国家的宪法,第3版。伦敦,J。M.登特父子,1972年(原为1830年)。

 
[14]         Wollstonecraft, M. 关于女儿教育的思考。剑桥,剑桥大学出版社,2014年(原为1787年)。

 
[15]         Carlyle, T. 萨托·萨萨特(Sartor Resartus)。爱丁堡,佳能经典,2002年(最初是1833年)。

 
[16]         See Bosanquet, B. 国家哲学理论。伦敦,麦克米伦(Macmillan),1899年。

 
[17]       莫里斯·W·巴克斯(E. B. Bax) 福彩3d图库主义。其增长和结果。伦敦,天鹅和Sonnenschein,1893年。

 
[18]        Carpenter’的观点可以在E. Carpenter中最清楚地找到。 文明。修订和放大版。伦敦,天鹅和Sonnenschein,1906年(最初为1889年)。

 
[19]         Hobson, J. A. 福彩3d图库问题:生活与工作。伦敦,J。Nisbet,1901年;霍布森,J。A.  现代资本主义的演变。伦敦,乔治·艾伦和温温,1894年。

 
[20]         Mayhew, H. 伦敦劳工和伦敦穷人, 4卷。纽约,多佛尔出版社(Dover 刊物),1968年(原为1861年);展位C. 伦敦人民的生活和劳动, 17卷。伦敦,麦克米伦(1901-2)。

 
[21]         MacIver, R. M. 社区:福彩3d图库学研究。伦敦,麦克米伦(Macmillan),1917年。

 
[22]       特别参见,Branford,V.V。和P.Geddes。 即将到来的政体。修订版。伦敦,威廉姆斯和诺盖特,1919年。一般性讨论在斯科特·J。‘The 福彩3d图库理论 of Patrick Geddes.’ 古典福彩3d图库学杂志 16(3),2016:237-260。

 
[23]       参见Scott,J.和R. Bromley中的帐户 构想福彩3d图库学。维克多·布兰福德(Victor Branford),帕特里克·格德斯(Patrick Geddes)和《福彩3d图库重建探索》。纽约州奥尔巴尼市,纽约州立大学出版社,2013年。

 
[24]        Hobhouse, L. T.  福彩3d图库发展:其性质和条件。伦敦,乔治·艾伦(George Allen)和温温(Unwin),1966年(最初为1924年)。另请参见Scott,J.‘The 福彩3d图库理论 of Leonard Hobhouse’ 古典福彩3d图库学杂志 16(4),2016:349-368。

 
[25]       参见B.Rocquin的这一时期的精彩报道。 两次世界大战期间的英国福彩3d图库学家和法国福彩3d图库学家。福彩3d图库之战。 伦敦,帕尔格雷夫·麦克米伦(Palgrave Macmillan),2019年。

 
[26]        Halsey, A. H. ‘省和专业人员:战后英国福彩3d图库学家。’ 欧洲福彩3d图库学杂志 23(1),1973:150-175。

 
[27]      后来在D的洛克伍德(Lockwood)开发。 团结与分裂。牛津,克拉伦登出版社,1992年。

 
[28]       Rex, J. A. 福彩3d图库学理论的关键问题。伦敦(Routledge and Kegan Paul),1961年。

 
[29]       没有足够的空间来列出战后时期的所有实证研究,但可以在J.E.T.的Eldridge找到各种不同专业的有用摘要。 最近的英国福彩3d图库学。伦敦,麦克米伦(1980),霍姆伍德(美国)和J.斯科特(美国)。 英国帕格格雷夫福彩3d图库学手册。伦敦,帕格雷夫·麦克米伦(Palgrave Macmillan),2014年。

  
[30]       在他的许多研究中,吉登斯(A. ​​Giddens) 福彩3d图库构成。剑桥,政治出版社,1984年。